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Science News: Gravitational waves and new frontiers in astrophysics

– A.S., Editor

The existence of gravitational waves was first proposed by Albert Einstein in 1916. In his now well-known theory of relativity, Einstein showed that these waves, which can be thought of as disruptions or “ripples” in spacetime, occur due to the acceleration of extremely massive objects, such as black holes and neutron stars. However, while the behavior of binary pulsars has previously provided indirect evidence of these elusive waves, it was not until 2015, almost a century since Einstein’s original prediction, that gravitational waves were directly detected for the first time at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

Direct observation of gravitational waves not only confirms Einstein’s prediction, but also paves the way for entirely new kinds of astronomy, cosmology, and physics. Recently, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have announced the observation of gravitational waves produced by the merging of two black holes with very different masses.

While almost all gravitational waves recorded thus far have also been attributed to binary black hole mergers, these previous observations involved two black holes with very similar masses. In contrast, the masses in the newly reported system were calculated to be approximately 30 and 8 times the mass of our Sun. The resultant signal from their merging was observed to contain slight differences in the waveform analogous to higher “harmonics”, which is consistent with Einstein’s theory.

These harmonics allow for more sophisticated analysis, such as improved measurements of the distance to the source. It is highly anticipated that in the coming decades, this developing branch of astronomy will lead to even more new and exciting discoveries, greatly furthering our understanding of the fundamental nature of our universe.

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